Paper dating laboratory

Similarities in paper type, colour, content, fibres, sizes etc can yield valuable information when determining similarities or differences between papers.The types of pen, printers etc may be significant in assessing the date of a document and as with many of the dating techniques, the evidence is often more valuable or significant when an anachronism is established as opposed to compliance with other materials, papers etc which may have been available for a prolonged period of time.There are various libraries of information available concerning when papers were produced but these rely very heavily on the presence of a watermark in the paper.Comparative analysis of a particular document against other documents from the same source and the same period may also be of assistance or may identify a particular time frame in which a particular organisation used a particular paper type.Thanks to the laboratory's modern equipment, a painting can be subjected to analysis using infrared reflectography, Wood's light, a stereoscopic microscope, IR spectroscopy and other instrumental techniques.3 e 4 - Microscopic analysis to examine the signs of ageing in the paint layer: the nature of the craquelure (natural or artificial - deep or superficial), the pigments (crystallinity, purity and size), restoration and other factors.Wood's light and monochromatic lights permit an evaluation of the extent to which the painting has been restored, touched up and overpainted, as well as the identification of various fluorescent substances.7, 8 e 9 - Infrared reflectography permits an in-depth examination of the painting bringing to light underdrawings or grids, pentimenti, the depth of the craquelure, and identification of restoration work or the use of different materials.Icons are a telling example of how stylistic considerations alone are not sufficient to establish the date of a painting.

as originals as long as buyers of art refuse to follow the same line of conduct adopted when acquiring other products, that is to say insisting on a dependable guarantee of the objects authenticity as the condition for its purchase.

There are different approaches for determining the authenticity of antique paintings: - verifying authenticity through a purely stylistic evaluation - verifying the authenticity of a painting by means of objective tests of the ageing of the material - verifying the authenticity of a painting with the use of scientific instrumental methods.

The combined results of the stylistic, material and scientific investigations will permit the establishing of the compatibility of the painting with presumed elements or its inauthenticity.

The ascertainment of the authenticity of this painting has been carried out with scientific tests on the material and through the study of techniques and signs of wear.

In detail: 1) with the spectroscopic dating of the wooden stretcher once proved its originality 2) with stereo microscopic analyses for the study of the painting layer: the drying of the paint binder, the craquelure, the sign left by the stretcher, etc.

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The relative dating of documents or entries on documents can also be undertaken utilising such techniques as ESDA or by examination of offset ink transfers (caused by writing a document resting on top of a "wet" transferable ink).

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